Ngày đăng : 25/07/2022
This new cooperation ranging from Bowlby and you can Mary Ainsworth is the answer to shaping attachment theory toward that which we understand today ( Karen, 1998 ). Ainsworth's biggest share so you're able to attachment idea is the introduction of the new Strange Problem processes and also the records of various attachment styles. The development of brand new Uncommon Condition techniques is grounded for the outlined findings of mothers and you may kids first in Uganda right after which from inside the America. From the within the-depth findings out-of mommy–infant sets, Ainsworth set up reveal image of attachment development across the infancy, and additionally documenting the newborns utilization of the mom while the a secure legs. Out of this expertise, she developed the Uncommon Disease procedure as a standard processes to pick accessory decisions from inside the a research mode and you can tried it to have the first time that have American moms and dads and you will infants.
The new Unusual Condition process starts with the caretaker additionally the baby each other within an area having toys ( Ainsworth, Bell, Stayton, 1971; Ainsworth, Blehar, Seas, Wall, 1978; Karen, 1998 ). Mom following returns therefore the stranger departs. Upcoming, mom will leave the little one by yourself regarding the room. The fresh new complete stranger production and attempts to comfort the little one. Finally, mom production. The latest Strange Problem is carried out amongst the chronilogical age of 12 and you can 18 months and you can allows new newborns responses so you're able to breakup and reunion as conveyed and seen. Ainsworth to start with noticed around three connection appearances. The new secure attachment layout, the most famous accessory build in middle-class Western examples, is where the baby gets distressed and you may protests separation, seeks morale on mommy in the event that mommy output, that's comfortable and you may calmed within her visibility. A kid which have a safe attachment is actually balanced anywhere between exploration with the usually the one give, and keeping connection to the accessory shape on the other.
, 1971, 1978; Karen, 1998 ). The latest nervous–ambivalent connection looks are where in fact the kid, during the Uncommon Situation, reveals tall distress on break up and if reunited one another tries new mother and you can conveys fury and you may opposition. Pupils which have anxious–ambivalent looks try hyperviligent to help you signs of rejection otherwise abandonment, which distracts them out of versatile exploration. New avoidant accessory looks are where in fact the kid, regarding Unusual Problem, seems nonchalant through the breakup and won't find spirits from the mom within the reunion, otherwise could possibly get approach however look away and never signal a good desire to be obtained. Regardless if avoidant college students may appear separate, from inside the Ainsworth's domestic observations this new avoidant people was in fact indistinguishable in the flingster ambivalent students: these people were one another nervous and clingy yourself. That is, to possess nervous–ambivalent pupils, you to behavioural development have their parents better, as well as for anxious–avoidant people, that behavioural trend have their moms and dads better. In other words, each one of these forms of connection trigger foreseeable relations anywhere between mother and guy.
To the around three connection looks a 4th is later added because of the Mary Main: sloppy accessory ( Head Soloman, 1986 ). Main suggested one to sloppy attachment will arise in the event that father or mother is performing into the a frightened, harmful, otherwise disassociating trends, particularly if the reason is not comprehensible to your man as it's just not triggered by an external stimulus ( Hesse Main, 2006 ). Lower than such criteria children are trapped from inside the a beneficial bind: its connection system says to them to look for retreat in their connection shape, yet the attachment figure's conclusion is actually triggering its danger program. Look for retreat or flee? On reunion regarding the Uncommon Condition babies having sloppy accessory get monitor worry, disorientation, otherwise conflicted choices ( Grangvist mais aussi al., 2017 ). Sloppy connection is normal in kids experiencing maltreatment, but it's perhaps not common to children feeling maltreatment, there was paths to sloppy attachment besides maltreatment, including a beneficial parent's unresolved shock or losses (age.g., an earlier stillbirth). In reality, of several moms and dads of children showing messy accessory is sensitive and painful and you may receptive external its periods regarding terrified, threatening, or disassociating choices. At the age of six, pupils with sloppy attachment typically have indicated a pattern from handling the parent; including, compliment of coercive conclusion or by way of character-reverse caretaking ( Head Cassidy, 1988 ).
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