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The brand new freezing area of liquids is actually selected as a moment resource

Ngày đăng : 24/08/2022


The brand new freezing area of liquids is actually selected as a moment resource

Good thermodynamic level are for this reason implicitly referenced so you're able to a lesser maximum from natural zero, that's outlined as 0K (kelvin)

An essential step-in the annals out-of temperature occurred in brand new 1800s, if the notion of temperature gathered a theoretical backing on the growth of this new science from thermodynamics. William Thomson (whom later on became Lord Kelvin) ideal a great thermodynamic temperature size where in actuality the ratio from heat above an 'absolute zero' could be in proportion on temperatures absorbed and refused by the a theoretical make named good Carnot cycle engine, functioning between these two heat.

From the numerically defining heat of cold point from drinking water is K, the fresh thermodynamic temperatures of your own boiling-point is found as K, 100 units high, so a period https://www.datingranking.net/tr/victoria-milan-inceleme of time off 1K and you may step one°C are the same.

Although not, determining thermodynamic weather is very hard, as well as very software far more fundamental tips are needed. These simple definitions away from heat fundamentally believe in repairing the prices of specific resource facts according to careful sized their thermodynamic temperature, after which specifying a way of interpolating between the two. Issues of which additional phases out of sorts of materials co-are present are helpful reference issues. But not, in place of boiling hot and cold factors (which rely on the fresh background stress), most readily useful repaired affairs occur from the multiple factors various ingredients. A triple area is the unmarried novel mix of temperatures and you will tension of which good, water, and fuel levels off a particular material can most of the coexist.

The modern standard to own weather is the latest Globally Temperature Level (1990), or Their-ninety. In its-90, temperatures on selection of oceanographic notice are prepared by:

2. the new triple area off uncontaminated water with a designated isotopic composition, defined to be ? 0.01°C (or K) exactly

Particularly temperature are interpolated using a specified polynomial function of the mentioned electric resistance out-of a rare metal wire

On the other hand, a way of figuring temperatures between this type of source circumstances is even revealed of the Its-ninety. Temperature outside of the oceanographic variety is defined playing with other fixed facts and techniques out-of interpolation.

Heat specified with the early in the day in the world standard temperatures scale (this new In the world Fundamental Temperature Level 1968 otherwise IPTS-68) differ from Its-90 because of the as much as 0.01°C over the selection of oceanographic appeal. Regardless of if the typical day-to-date issues constantly do not require accuracies of greater than in the 0.1°C at best, an improvement of 0.01°C is somewhat larger than the accuracy that strong ocean specifications are in reality made (Table 1). Cautious adherence to standards was therefore must have developed contrast measurements made by different people around the globe, and contrast contemporary dimensions to help you dimensions built in for the last and also in the long term.

Even when inside the-situ heat t laid out because of the Their-90 tends to be the amount we scale, it is not the absolute most of use changeable having discussing temperatures posts alone. Two effects can result in troubles. Very first, the ability required to replace the temperatures out of seawater by the a good repaired matter (say, 1°C), called the temperature skill, is actually alone a function of temperature and salinity. It needs on 5% less energy in order to heat average seawater from the step one° C than just it does to help you heat an equivalent mass of freshwater of the step one°C. 2nd, the results out of pressure is operate to alter the latest within the-situ temperatures of water instead altering the warmth content. Squeeze typical seawater (otherwise air) causes the temperature to go up. A force of a hundred atmospheres (or about one thousand dbar) is enough to increase mentioned seawater heat because of the in the 0.1°C. However, the warmth out-of near-cold fresh water actually drops given that tension grows.

To help you be the cause of the stress consequences, a changeable named possible heat, denoted ?, is generally included in oceanography. The possibility temperatures away from a h2o package is the temperature one might be measured if for example the h2o package have been sealed inside a great bag (to quit the loss otherwise gain of any sodium) and you will delivered to the sea skin adiabatically (i.e., rather than buying and selling one heat along with its landscaping). The potential weather is for this reason insensitive to help you tension by the meaning, it is less than the fresh within the-situ heat by regarding 0.1°C for every one thousand m off depth boost (Shape 1a).

Dương Xuân Quả (Năm Nhã)

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